The Black Cat

Aubrey_Beardsley_-_Edgar_Poe_2
The Black Cat, illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley in 1894-5.

Happy Halloween, readers! I’m celebrating with some festive reading:

The Black Cat (1843) is a classic Edgar Allen Poe story: dark, haunting, and recounted by an unreliable narrator. You can read the story, right now, from the comfort of your home, on Google Books. The collection, called The Works of the Late Edgar Allen Poe, was published in the year of his death–1849, but digitized and added to Google’s quest to own everything in 2006. Putting aside personal qualms about upcoming world domination by Google, this access to classic works allows for analysis using digital tools. What can we find out about The Black Cat that wouldn’t be obvious from reading the text?

Screen Shot 2018-10-28 at 1.12.02 PM
Minor typos and formatting issues in plain text of The Black Cat

The first step in using these tools is converting the original typeface to plain text, as interpreted by the computer. This plain text can be copied and pasted, searched, and transformed in a word processing program. The first thing I noticed was that this “translation” from the original to the plain text wasn’t perfect. There were a few misread characters, some odd spacing, and minor issues like this. The biggest error was a page that didn’t “translate” at all–a page that turned out to be a major turning point in the plot! (I won’t spoil it, but it involves murder.)

Screen Shot 2018-10-28 at 1.13.04 PM
One page didn’t “translate” to plain text. I intentionally left this image small so nothing is spoiled, if you’d like to read the story!

However, I was able to copy the majority of the story into a Google Doc. Aside from the missing page, none of the typos were serious, so in the next experiment, I uploaded the full text to voyant-tools.org to try some of the tools. The first, most eye-catching tool is a word cloud showing the most frequent words in the whole story. For The Black Cat, these were “house,” “cat,” “day,” “came,” “wife,” and “wall.” Having already read the story, I suppose these words reflect the plot, although if someone wasn’t familiar with the story it may not make sense or sound spooky–but it very much is!

Cirrus
“Cirrus”–a word cloud of the most common words in the story.
Trends
This graph shows where each term shows up in the story. The cat plot line really ramps up at the halfway point, while the house becomes more important towards the end.
WordsBerry
The TermsBerry tool shows the most-used words (such as “wife”) and other words that show up alongside them.

Google’s n-gram tracks the usage of words over time in the corpus of work Google has in its archive. From the errors I found in this short story, I can imagine that this isn’t perfect, but it’s pretty close. First, I tracked the first three words, “house,” “cat,” and “day”–but since these are everyday words that haven’t changed much in the English language, I didn’t notice much change over time. So I went further down the list and chose “terror,” “beast,” and “hung”–words that appeared several times each, speak to the plot, and showed interesting change over time.

House,Cat,Day
The words “day,” “house,” and “cat,” from 1800 to 2000 appear pretty evenly in English language works
terror, beast, hung
The words “hung,” “terror,” and “beast” fluctuate over time.
terror1789-1985
In English, between 1700 and 2000, usage of the word “terror” peaked in 1789 (as in the reign of..?) Interestingly, in France, the word peaked around 1985.

I found a similar tool, the Bookworm from Hathitrust, to take a bit longer to load results, so I didn’t play around with it as much. It functions similarly, but my personal frustration with the amount of time it took to process meant I tried fewer combinations. I did notice that words Google showed as holding steady over time dropped off sharply in the 20th century according to Hathitrust. This is probably because Hathitrust only uses works in the public domain, meaning the corpus from 1924 onwards is much smaller–and from the decline in words like house and wall, must include fewer works in the domestic sphere.

hathitrust
Hathitrust showed a more dramatic decline in the usage of “house” and “day.” It also took several minutes longer to load.

All of this is interesting information for word nerds, but how can public historians use it?

Firstly, this information can be very useful to us as scholars. One of the challenges of public history is finding a balance of presenting nuanced stories in a simple, understandable way, without dumbing down the content. Using tools like Voyant and Google’s n-gram can reveal large historical trends and get us thinking about the broad strokes of a story. This can help us better convey what is important. They can also show us how usages of terms fit into larger trends. Was Poe writing about terror in 1849 because everyone else was?

Secondly, tools like this can be used by a curious public. Especially with online exhibitions, including opportunities to try out interactive tools allows for deeper engagement. Taking a historical text and being given an interpretation is one thing, but being able to track change over time yourself and drawing your own conclusions is another, more meaningful activity.

Tools like Voyant and n-gram are fun, with slick user interfaces and lots of opportunities to play around with filters and visualizations, but I’m interested to see where digital textual analysis goes next. We have access to lots of digitized material–more than any one person could ever read–what will we do with it all?

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One Reply to “The Black Cat”

  1. Love the example of Edgar Allan Poe! It is pretty interesting to find a lot of common vocabulary you might not expect out of a single book or decade. I found that pulling “faith” and “journey” out of Frankenstein put it in a category with a lot of very different books.

    Like

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